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Thomas Smith
Thomas Smith

How Trahison Dans Une Si Longue Lettre De Mariama Ba Pdf Reveals the Betrayal of Women in Senegal



Trahison Dans Une Si Longue Lettre De Mariama Ba Pdf: A Novel of Friendship, Love and Betrayal in Post-Colonial Senegal




Trahison Dans Une Si Longue Lettre De Mariama Ba Pdf is the first novel by the Senegalese writer Mariama Bâ, published in 1979. Written in French, the novel takes the form of a letter that Ramatoulaye Fall writes to her longtime friend Aïssatou, telling her about her widowhood and her life as a woman and a mother. The events of her life are intertwined with those of her friend Aïssatou.




Trahison Dans Une Si Longue Lettre De Mariama Ba Pdfl



The novel explores the status of women in Senegal and more broadly in West Africa. It addresses themes such as love, friendship, betrayal, polygamy, feminism, education, and tradition. The novel also reflects the political and social changes that occurred after the independence of Senegal from France in 1960.


The Place of Women




Love and friendship play a central role in Ramatoulaye's journey with Modou. Ramatoulaye, who chose to marry Modou for love, explores what it means to be in love, and the weight of the tradition of polygamy. The importance of friendship is seen especially with the epistolary exchange between Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou. After the death of her husband, Ramatoulaye takes advantage of the period of mourning to reflect on her life. She writes to Aïssatou to share her feelings, thoughts, and ambitions, and to rely on her support in her distress.


Possible Evolutions of the Status of African Women




The possible evolution of the status of women appears in the characters of Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou. These two women are powerful, intelligent, independent, and they represent the feminist movement of Africa. Aïssatou left her husband because he took a second wife and that was not the type of marriage she wanted. After that, she went to the United States as a translator. This situation shows that she has the power and the freedom to choose what she wants to do. When Ramatoulaye's husband died and several men asked her to marry them, she rejected them. She will not marry for reasons other than love.


Polygamy




The novel also explores the topic of polygamy and the status of women in the context of society and family. The protagonist, Ramatoulaye suffers the direct influence of a polygamous marriage when her husband takes a second wife without her consent. In her letter, Ramatoulaye tells the difference between her reaction and that of her friend Aissatou. Aissatou had decided to leave her husband when he married a second woman. Ramatoulaye however decided to stay with her husband for the sake of her children. Despite her husband's actions, Ramatoulaye remains faithful to him. Moreover, she refuses to remarry after his death, stating that marriage is a matter of love. When the brother of her deceased husband proposes marriage to her, Ramatoulaye is categorical that she will not participate in this marriage simply to improve her social status.


Education




The novel also highlights the role of education in the empowerment of women and the development of the nation. Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou are among the first generation of educated women in Senegal. They have studied at the École Normale, a prestigious institution that trains teachers. They have also learned French, the language of the former colonizer, and have access to a wider culture and knowledge. They use their education to teach, to write, and to express themselves. They also encourage their children, especially their daughters, to pursue their studies and to have a career.


Tradition




The novel also depicts the tension between tradition and modernity in post-colonial Senegal. Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou face various challenges and pressures from their families, their communities, and their religion. They have to deal with customs such as polygamy, levirate marriage, female circumcision, and inheritance laws that favor men. They also have to balance their roles as wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, and professionals. They try to find a way to respect their culture and their faith without compromising their dignity and their rights.


Colonialism and Independence




The novel also reflects the impact of colonialism and independence on the Senegalese society and culture. Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou belong to the first generation of educated women who have benefited from the French education system. They have also witnessed the struggle for independence and the hope for a new nation. However, they also face the challenges of adapting to a changing world and preserving their identity. They have to deal with the legacy of colonialism, such as the language, the religion, the politics, and the economy. They also have to cope with the contradictions and conflicts that arise from the coexistence of different cultures and values.


Feminism




The novel is considered as a major work of feminism, for what it says about the condition of women. Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou are examples of strong and courageous women who resist oppression and injustice. They assert their rights and their dignity as human beings. They also express their solidarity and their support for other women who suffer from discrimination and violence. They challenge the patriarchal system that dominates their society and their religion. They also question the role of men in their lives and in their families. They seek to create a new balance between tradition and modernity, between individuality and community, between love and duty.


Style and Structure




The novel is written in the form of a long letter that Ramatoulaye addresses to her friend Aïssatou. This epistolary form allows the author to create a close and intimate relationship between the narrator and the reader. The letter also serves as a means of expression and reflection for Ramatoulaye, who confides her feelings, thoughts, and memories to her friend. The letter is divided into 27 chapters, each corresponding to a day of the four-month period of mourning that Ramatoulaye observes after the death of her husband. The letter covers various aspects of Ramatoulaye's life, from her childhood to her present situation, as well as those of Aïssatou and other women.


Reception and Awards




The novel was well received by critics and readers, both in Africa and abroad. It was praised for its realistic and authentic portrayal of the lives of African women, as well as for its poetic and elegant language. The novel also raised awareness and debate about the issues of women's rights, gender equality, and cultural diversity. The novel won the prestigious Noma Award for Publishing in Africa in 1980, which recognizes the best book published in Africa each year. The novel has been translated into several languages, including English, Spanish, German, Italian, Arabic, and Swahili.


Analysis and Interpretation




The novel can be seen as a critique of the patriarchal and neocolonial system that oppresses women and prevents them from achieving their full potential. Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou represent the voice of resistance and emancipation that challenges the dominant discourse and values. They also embody the hybridity and complexity of the post-colonial identity, which is shaped by multiple influences and experiences. The novel also shows the diversity and richness of the Senegalese culture and history, as well as the role of women in preserving and transmitting it. The novel can also be read as a celebration of the power of writing and communication, which enables Ramatoulaye to express herself, to heal, and to connect with her friend.


Impact and Influence




The novel has had a significant impact and influence on the African literature and culture, especially on the women writers. The novel has inspired many other works that deal with similar themes and issues, such as polygamy, feminism, education, tradition, and modernity. Some examples are Nervous Conditions by Tsitsi Dangarembga, So Long a Letter by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Purple Hibiscus by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, and Half of a Yellow Sun by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. The novel has also contributed to the recognition and appreciation of the African women's literature, which has often been marginalized and silenced by the male-dominated literary canon.


Author's Biography




Mariama Bâ was born in 1929 in Dakar, Senegal. She was one of the first women to receive a Western education in Senegal. She attended the École Normale, where she met her future husband, Obèye Diop. They had nine children, but their marriage ended in divorce. Bâ worked as a teacher and an activist for women's rights and education. She also wrote articles and essays for various newspapers and magazines. She published her first novel, Une si longue lettre, in 1979, at the age of 50. The novel was an instant success and won the Noma Award for Publishing in Africa in 1980. Bâ died of cancer in 1981, before she could finish her second novel, Un chant écarlate, which was published posthumously in 1981.


Conclusion




Trahison Dans Une Si Longue Lettre De Mariama Ba Pdf is a novel that explores the lives of two women, Ramatoulaye and Aïssatou, who face various challenges and pressures as wives, mothers, friends, and professionals in post-colonial Senegal. The novel addresses themes such as love, friendship, betrayal, polygamy, feminism, education, tradition, and modernity. The novel also reflects the political and social changes that occurred after the independence of Senegal from France in 1960. The novel is written in the form of a letter that Ramatoulaye writes to her friend Aïssatou during her period of mourning after the death of her husband. The letter serves as a means of expression and reflection for Ramatoulaye, who confides her feelings, thoughts, and memories to her friend. The novel is considered as a major work of feminism and African literature, for its realistic and authentic portrayal of the condition of women, as well as for its poetic and elegant language. The novel has had a significant impact and influence on the African literature and culture, especially on the women writers. b99f773239


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